TABLE 1


Table 1. Usage of Voting Equipment in the 1980 and 2000 Elections
   Percent of Counties   Using   Technology Percent of 2000 Population   Covered by   Technology
1980 2000 1980 2000
Paper Ballots40.412.5  9.8  1.3
Lever Machines36.414.743.917.8
Punch Card
“VotoMatic”17.017.530.030.9
“DataVote”  2.1  1.7  2.7  3.5
Optically scanned  0.840.2  9.827.5
Electronic (DRE)  0.2  8.9  2.310.7
Mixed  3.0  4.410.4  8.1


















TABLE 2


Table 2. Average Residual Vote By Machine Type
In U.S. Counties—1988-2000 Presidential Elections
Residual Vote      
Machine Type County   Average Standard   Deviation Median Percent of All   Ballots N
Paper Ballot1.92.071.51.91,540
Lever Machine1.91.701.41.71,382
Punch Card
“VotoMatic”3.01.882.52.61,893
“DataVote”2.92.732.02.4    383
Optically scanned2.12.771.31.61,821
Electronic (DRE)2.91.832.72.2    494
Mixed2.21.791.71.5    283


















TABLE 3


Table 3. Residual Vote as a Percent of Total Ballots Cast
By Machine Type and Year
U.S. Counties, 1988-2000 Presidential Elections
      Residual Vote Rate (pop-weighted avg)
bMachine Type b1988 1992 1996 2000
Paper Ballot2.21.42.11.3
Lever Machine2.01.51.71.7
Punch Card
“VotoMatic”2.92.22.63.0
“DataVote”3.72.42.11.0
Optically scanned2.52.41.51.2
Electronic (DRE)3.52.52.91.6
Mixed2.11.41.52.7


















TABLE 4


Table 4. Which is Best?
Residual Vote Attributable to Machine Type Relative to Lever Machines
U.S. Counties, 1988-2000 Presidential Elections
All Counties Excluding Extremes
Machine   Contrast Estimated   Difference In % RV Margin of   Error (a) Estimated   Difference In % RV Margin of   Error
Paper Ballot
v. Levers –0.55 1B0.37 –0.19 1B0.19
Punch Card
“VotoMatic”
  v. Levers  1.32 1B0.38  1.11 1B0.20
“DataVote”
  v. Levers  1.24 1B0.52  0.97 1B0.28
Optically scanned
v. Levers  0.11 1B0.35 –0.05 1B0.19
Electronic (DRE)
v. Levers  0.90 1B0.30  0.67 1B0.16
Number of CasesI40(1)7513I40(1)7078


















TABLE 5


Table 5. Counties Using Levers in 1988
From 1988 to Current year (92, 96 or 2000).  .  .
   Change in   Residual Vote As % of All   Ballots Avg. Change in   County   Residual Vote Median Change in   County   Residual Vote N
Kept Levers –0.21 –0.13 –0.25520
To Scanners –0.62 –0.18 –0.32137
To DREs  0.55  0.73  0.83250